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Community Outreach: The WEI Bilingual Training Center Lecture on January 18 2016

The Whole Elephant Institute Bilingual Training Center delivered two and half hours of bilingual lectures directly to 500 students through the WeChat platform at 10:00 P.M. on January 18, 2016. The bilingual teaching materials are posted here:

Voice Files:



Part One:
http://newhuaren.com/visa/us_naturalization_test/

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT /美国政府
A. Principals of American Democracy/美国民主原则
1. What is the supreme law of the land?/美国的最高法律是什么?
答:The Constitution /宪法
2. What does the Constitution do?/宪法的作用是什么?
答:Sets up the government /建立政府体制
答:Defines the government /定义政府
答:Protects basic rights of Americans保护美国人的基本权利
3. The idea of self-government is in the first three words of the Constitution. What are these words? /宪法的前三个字说明自治的概念。这三个字是什么?
答:We the People /我们人民
4. What is an amendment?/什么是修正案?
答:A change (to the Constitution) /(宪法的)更正
答:An addition (to the Constitution) /(宪法的)补充
5. What do we call the first ten amendments to the Constitution?/宪法的前十项修正案称为什么?
答:The Bill of Rights /权利法案
*6. What is one right or freedom from the First Amendment? /列举宪法第一条修正案中的一项权利或自由
答:Speech /言论自由
答:Religion /宗教自由
答:Assembly /集会结社的自由
答:Press /出版自由
答:Petition the government /向政府请愿的自由
7. How many amendments does the Constitution have? /宪法有几条修正案?
答:Twenty-seven (27) /二十七(27) 条
8. What did the Declaration of Independence do?/《独立宣言》的作用是什么?
答:Announced our independence (from Great Britain) /宣布美国(脱离英国而)独立
答:Declared our independence (from Great Britain) /宣告美国(脱离英国而)独立
答:Said that the United States is free (from Great Britain) / 表示美国(脱离英国而)独立
9. What are two rights in the Declarationof Independence?/列举《独立宣言》中的两项权利?
答:Life / 生命(的权利)
答:Liberty /自由(的权利)
答:Pursuit of happiness /追求幸福(的权利)
10. What is freedom of religion?/什么是宗教自由?
答:You can practice any religion, or not practice a religion. /你可以信仰任何宗教,也可以不信仰任何宗教

Part Two:
http://www.ushistory.org/paine/commonsense/sense2.htm

Of the Origin and Design of Government in General, with Concise Remarks on the English Constitution
SOME writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave little or no distinction between them; whereas they are not only different, but have different origins. Society is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former promotes our happiness POSITIVELY by uniting our affections, the latter NEGATIVELY by restraining our vices. The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions. The first is a patron, the last a punisher.
Society in every state is a blessing, but Government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one: for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries BY A GOVERNMENT, which we might expect in a country WITHOUT GOVERNMENT, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer. Government, like dress, is the badge of lost innocence; the palaces of kings are built upon the ruins of the bowers of paradise. For were the impulses of conscience clear, uniform and irresistibly obeyed, man would need no other lawgiver; but that not being the case, he finds it necessary to surrender up a part of his property to furnish means for the protection of the rest; and this he is induced to do by the same prudence which in every other case advises him, out of two evils to choose the least. Wherefore, security being the true design and end of government, it unanswerably follows that whatever form thereof appears most likely to ensure it to us, with the least expense and greatest benefit, is preferable to all others.
In order to gain a clear and just idea of the design and end of government, let us suppose a small number of persons settled in some sequestered part of the earth, unconnected with the rest; they will then represent the first peopling of any country, or of the world. In this state of natural liberty, society will be their first thought. A thousand motives will excite them thereto; the strength of one man is so unequal to his wants, and his mind so unfitted for perpetual solitude, that he is soon obliged to seek assistance and relief of another, who in his turn requires the same. Four or five united would be able to raise a tolerable dwelling in the midst of a wilderness, but one man might labour out the common period of life without accomplishing any thing; when he had felled his timber he could not remove it, nor erect it after it was removed; hunger in the mean time would urge him to quit his work, and every different want would call him a different way. Disease, nay even misfortune, would be death; for, though neither might be mortal, yet either would disable him from living, and reduce him to a state in which he might rather be said to perish than to die.

Thus necessity, like a gravitating power, would soon form our newly arrived emigrants into society, the reciprocal blessings of which would supersede, and render the obligations of law and government unnecessary while they remained perfectly just to each other; but as nothing but Heaven is impregnable to vice, it will unavoidably happen that in proportion as they surmount the first difficulties of emigration, which bound them together in a common cause, they will begin to relax in their duty and attachment to each other: and this remissness will point out the necessity of establishing some form of government to supply the defect of moral virtue.

泛论政权的起源和目的,并简评英国政体

有些作者把社会和政府混为一谈,弄得它们彼此没有多少区别,甚或完全没有区别;而实际上它们不但不是一回事,而且有不同的起源。社会是由我们的欲望所产生的,政府是由我们的邪恶所产生的;前者使我们一体同心,从而积极地增进我们的幸福,后者制止我们的恶行,从而消极地增进我们的幸福。一个是鼓励交往,另一个是制造差别。前面的一个是奖励者,后面的一个是惩罚者。社会在各种情况下都是受人欢迎的,可是政府呢,即使在其最好的情况下,也不过是一件免不了的祸害;在其最坏的情况下,就成了不可容忍的祸害;因为,当我们受苦的时候,当我们从一个政府方面遭受那些只有在无政府的国家中才可能遭受的不幸时,我们由于想到自己亲手提供了受苦的根源而格外感到痛心。政府好比衣服,是天真纯朴受到残害的表征;帝王的宫殿是建筑在乐园的亭榭的废墟上的。如果良心的激发是天日可鉴的、始终如一的和信守不渝的,一个人就毋需其他的立法者;但事实并非如此,他觉得有必要放弃一部分的财产,出钱换取其余的人的保护;谨慎小心的原则在其他任何场合都劝他两害相权取其轻,现在这个原则也促使他这样做。因此,既然安全是政府的真正的意图和目的,那就毫无疑义地可以推断,任何看起来最有可能保证我们安全的形式,只要是花费最少而得益最大,都是其他一切人所愿意接受的。
为了清楚而正确地了解政府的意图和目的,我们假定有少数人在地球的某一个隐僻的部分住下来,同其余的人不发生联系;他们就将代表任何一块地方或世界上的第一批移民。在这种自然的自由状态下,他们将首先想到社会。千百种的动机都将鼓励他们趋向这一目标。单单一个人的力量应付不了他的各种需要,他的心境又不堪永远寂寞,因此他不久就被迫寻求另一个人的帮助和安慰,而对方也有同样的要求。四五个人通力合作,就能够在旷野当中兴建一个还算过得去的住所,但单独一个人的力量就可能劳碌终生而一无所成。当他砍了木头之后他搬不动它,就是搬动了也竖不起来;同时饥饿会逼他离开工作,每一种不同的需要会以不同的方式来支使他。疾病,哪怕是一件不幸,也意味着死亡;因为它们纵然并不致人于死命,也会使他不能维持生活,落到死不死活不活的境地。
这样,客观的需要像一种吸引力似的,马上会把我们这些刚到的移民组成社会,而彼此从社会生活中所得的幸福就会确立起来,并且只要人们始终互以真诚相待,就不必有法律和政府的约束;然而,由于唯独上帝才不为邪恶所侵染,结果就必然发生这样的情况:他们刚刚克服了那些在共同的事业中把他们团结起来的迁居之初所遇到的种种困难之后,立刻便开始忽视彼此应尽的责任和应有的情谊。这种怠懈表明有必要建立某种形式的统治,来弥补德行方面的缺陷。



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