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Community Outreach: WEI Bilingual Training Center Public Lecture on January 19 2016

全象学院双语培训中心于二零一六年美东时间一月十九日晚十点二十分开始通过微信平台教授双语课,四百九十八位学员参加。双语教材发表在此:

(The Whole Elephant Institute Bilingual Training Center delivered two hours of bilingual lectures directly to 498 students through the WeChat platform at 10:20 P.M. on January 19, 2016. The bilingual teaching materials are posted here: )

六、文化大革命——邪灵附体,乾坤倒转
文化革命是共产党邪灵附体全中国的一次大表演。1966年,中国大地上掀起了又一股暴虐狂潮。红色恐怖的狂风咆哮,如发疯孽龙,脱缰野马,群山为之震撼,江河为之胆寒。作家秦牧曾这样描述中国的文化大革命:“这真是空前的一场浩劫。多少百万人连坐困顿,多少百万人含恨以终,多少家庭分崩离析,多少少年儿童变成了流氓恶棍,多少书籍被付之一炬,多少名胜古迹横遭破坏,多少先贤坟墓被挖掉,多少罪恶假革命之名以进行。”据专家们的保守估计,文化大革命中非正常死亡者达773万人。
人们对文化革命中的暴力和屠杀往往有一种错觉,觉得这些大都是在无政府状态下由造反运动形成的。杀人者也都是“红卫兵”、“造反派”。但根据中国出版的数千册县志所提供的资料,文革中死人最多的时期不是红卫兵造反有理,中央各级政府处于瘫痪的1966年底,也不是造反派武斗正盛的1967年,而是“各级革命委员会”已建立,毛泽东恢复了对国家机制全面控制的1968年。在全国著名大屠杀案件中,滥施暴力、血腥杀伐的大多是政府控制的军队、武装民兵和各级党员骨干。
从下面这几个例子中我们可以看到,文革中的暴行并非红卫兵、造反派的一时过激行为,而是共产党和地方政权的既定决策。文革时期的领导人与各级权力机构对暴政的直接指挥和参与,常常被遮掩起来而不为人知。
1966年8月,北京红卫兵以“遣返”为名,把历次运动中划为地、富、反、坏、右的北京市居民强行赶出北京押往农村。据官方不完全统计,当时有3万3千6百95户北京市民被抄家,有8万5千196人被驱逐出城、遣返原籍。此风很快在全国各大城市蔓延,多达40万城市居民被遣返到农村。连有地主成份的共产党高级干部的父母也未能幸免。实质上,这种遣返行动是中共在文革前就安排好了的。彭真任北京市长时就说过,要把北京居民成份纯净为“玻璃板、水晶石”,即把成份不好的市民全部赶出北京。1966年5月,毛泽东发出“保卫首都”的指示,成立了以叶剑英、杨成武和谢富治为首的首都工作组。这个工作组的任务之一就是通过公安局大规模遣返“成份不好”的居民。如此就不难理解,为什么红卫兵对超过2%的北京市居民抄家遣返,不但未被政府阻止,相反还得到市、区公安局和街道派出所的大力支持。当时的公安部长谢富治曾要求公安干警不要去阻拦红卫兵,要为红卫兵当“参谋”,提供情报。红卫兵不过是被当局所用。到了1966年底,这些红卫兵也被共产党抛弃,不少人被宣布为“联动分子”而入狱。其它的随大批“知识青年”被送到乡下参加劳动、改造思想。当时主持遣返活动的西城红卫兵组织,就是在共产党领导人的“亲自关怀”下成立的,他们的通令也是由当时的国务院秘书长修订后发表的。
继北京遣返地、富成份的人去农村,农村也掀起了又一轮对地、富成份人群的迫害。1966年8月26日在北京市所属的大兴县公安局的局务会上,传达了公安部长谢富治的讲话。其中要点之一是公安干警要为红卫兵当参谋,提供黑五类(地、富、反、坏、右)的情报,协助抄家。大兴县的屠杀运动直接来自县公安局的指令。组织杀人行动的是公安局的主任、党委书记。动手杀人,连孩子都不放过的大多是民兵。
文革中,很多人因在屠杀中“表现好”而得以入党。据不完全统计,在文革中突击入党的,在广西一省有9千多人是杀人后入党的,有2万多人是入党后杀人的,还有与杀人有牵连的1万9千多人。单从这一省的统计,就有近5万共产党员参与了杀人事件。
文革中,对“打人”也要进行阶级分析:好人打坏人活该;坏人打好人光荣;好人打好人误会。毛泽东当年讲的这句话在肆虐一时的造反运动中广为流传。既然对阶级敌人的暴力是他们“活该”,那么暴力和杀戮也就广泛传播开去。
1967年8月13日到10月7日,湖南道县人民武装部的基层民兵屠杀“湘江风雷”组织成员及黑五类。历时66天涉及10个区,36个公社,468个大队,2778户,共4519人。全地区10个县共死9093人,其中“地富反坏”占38%,地富子女占44%。被杀人中,年纪最大的78岁,最小的才10天。这仅仅是文革暴行中,一个地区的一个事件。在1968年初“革委会”成立后的清查阶级队伍运动中,内蒙古清查“内人党”制造了35万余人被杀的血案。1968年在广西有数万人参与了对“四·二二”群众团体的武装大屠杀,死人11万。
由此可见文革中的暴力屠杀首案、大案全是国家机器的行为,是共产党领导人纵容和利用暴力迫害残杀百姓。直接指挥和执行这些屠杀的凶手多是军队、警察、武装民兵和党团骨干。如果说,土改是为了土地而依靠农民打地主,工商改造是为了资产而依靠工人打资本家,反右是为了让知识分子缄口,那么文化革命中这种你斗我,我斗你,并无哪个阶级是可依靠的,即便你是共产党依靠过的工人农民,只要观点不一致,就可以杀你。这究竟是为了什么?
这就是为了造就共产党一教统天下的大势。不光统治国家,还要统治每一个人的思想。文化革命使共产党、毛泽东的“造神”运动登峰造极。一定要以毛泽东的理论独裁一切,置一人之思想于亿万人脑中。空前绝后的是文化大革命不规定有什么事情是不能做的,而是“什么可以做,要怎样去做,而除此之外什么都不能做、不能想”。文革中,全国人民实行着宗教崇拜一样的“早请示,晚汇报”,每天数次敬祝毛主席万寿无疆,早晚两次政治祷告。认字的人几乎人人写过自我批评和思想汇报。言必称语录,“狠斗私字一闪念”,“理解要执行,不理解也要执行,在执行中加深理解”。文革中只允许崇拜一位“神”,只诵读一本“经”——毛主席语录。进而到不背语录、不敬祝就无法在食堂买饭。买东西、坐汽车、打电话也要背一句毫不相干的语录。人们在做这些事的时候,或狂热兴奋,或麻木不仁,已经完全被罩在共产党的邪灵之下。制造谎言、容忍谎言、依靠谎言业已成为中国人生活的方式。

VI. The Cultural Revolution—The World Turned Upside Down by Evil Possession 
The Cultural Revolution was a grand performance put up by the communist specter as it possessed the entire China. In 1966, a new wave of violence rolled onto China’s land, and an uncontrollable red terror shook the mountains and froze the rivers.  Writer Qin Mu described the Cultural Revolution in bleak terms:
It was truly an unprecedented calamity: [the CCP] imprisoned millions due to their association with a [targeted] family member, ended the lives of millions more, shattered families, turned children into hoodlums and villains, burned books, tore down ancient buildings, and destroyed ancient intellectuals’ gravesites, committing all kinds of crimes in the name of revolution.
Conservative figures place the number of unnatural deaths in China during the Cultural Revolution at 7.73 million.
People often mistakenly think that the violence and slaughter during the Cultural Revolution happened mostly during the rebel movements, and that it was the Red Guards and rebels who committed the killing. However, thousands of officially published Chinese county annuals indicate that the peak of unnatural deaths during the Cultural Revolution was not in 1966, when the Red Guards controlled most of the government organizations, or in 1967 when the rebels fought among different groups with weapons, but rather in 1968 when Mao regained control over the entire country. The murderers in those infamous cases were often army officers and soldiers, armed militiamen, and CCP members at all levels of the government.
The following examples illustrate how the violence during the Cultural Revolution was the policy of the CCP and the regional government, not the extreme behavior of the Red Guards. The CCP has covered up the direct instigation of and involvement in the violence by party leaders and government officials.
In August 1966, the Red Guards expelled Beijing residents who had been classified in past movements as “landlords, rich farmers, reactionaries, bad elements, and rightists” and forced them to the countryside. Incomplete official statistics showed that 33,695 homes were searched and 85,196 Beijing residents were expelled out of the city and sent back to where their parents had originally come from. Red Guards all over the country followed suit, expelling over 400,000 urban residents to the countryside. Even high-ranking officials, whose parents were landlords, faced exile to the country.
Actually, the CCP planned the expulsion campaign even before the Cultural Revolution began. Former Beijing mayor Peng Zhen declared that the residents of Beijing City should be as ideologically pure as “glass panels and crystals,” meaning that all residents with a bad class background would be expelled out of the city. In May of 1966, Mao commanded his subordinates to “protect the capital.” A capital working team was set up, led by Ye Jianying, Yang Chengwu and Xie Fuzhi. One of the tasks of this team was to use the police to expel Beijing residents of bad class background.
This history helps make clear why the government and police departments did not intervene but rather supported the Red Guards in searching homes and expelling more than two percent of Beijing residents. The Minister of Public Security, Xie Fuzhi, required the police not to intervene in the Red Guards’ actions but rather to provide advice and information to them. The Red Guards were simply utilized by the Party to carry out a planned action, and then, at the end of 1966, these Red Guards were abandoned by the CCP. Many were labeled counterrevolutionaries and imprisoned, and others were sent to the countryside, along with other urban youth, to labor and reform their thoughts. The West Town Red Guard organization, which led the expulsion of city residents, was established under the “caring” guidance of the CCP leaders. The order to incriminate these Red Guards was also issued after being revised by the secretary-general of the State Council.
Following the removal of the Beijing residents of bad class background, the rural areas started another round of persecution of bad class elements. On August 26, 1966, a speech of Xie Fuzhi was passed down to the Daxing Police Bureau at their work meeting. Xie ordered the police to assist the Red Guards in searching the homes of the “five black classes” (landlords, rich peasants, reactionaries, bad elements, and rightists) by providing advice and information and helping in their raids. The infamous Daxing Massacre [8] occurred as a result of direct instructions by the police department; the organizers were the director and the CCP secretary of the police department, and the killers were mostly militiamen who did not even spare the children.
Many were admitted into the CCP for their “good behavior” during similar slaughters. According to incomplete statistics for Guangxi Province, about 50,000 CCP members engaged in killing. Among them more than 9,000 were admitted into the Party shortly after killing someone, more than 20,000 committed murder after being admitted into the Party, and more than 19,000 other Party members were involved in killing in one way or another.
During the Cultural Revolution, class theory would also be applied to beatings. The bad deserved it if they were beaten by the good. It was honorable for a bad person to beat another bad person. It was a misunderstanding if a good person beat another good person. Such a theory invented by Mao was spread widely in the rebel movements. Violence and slaughter were widespread following the logic that the enemies of the class struggle deserved any violence against them.
From August 13 to October 7 of 1967, militiamen in Dao County of Hunan Province slaughtered members of the “Xiangjiang Wind and Thunder” organization and those of the “five black classes.” The slaughter lasted 66 days; more than 4,519 people in 2,778 households were killed in 468 brigades (administrative villages) of 36 people’s communes in 10 districts. In the entire prefecture consisting of 10 counties, a total of 9,093 people were killed, of which 38% were of the “five black classes” and 44% were their children.  The oldest person killed was 78 years old, and the youngest was only 10 days old.
This is only one case of violence in one small area during the Cultural Revolution. In Inner Mongolia, after the establishment of the “revolutionary committee” in early 1968, the cleansing of class rank and purging of the fabricated “Inner Mongolia People’s Revolutionary Party” killed more than 350,000 people. In 1968, tens of thousands of people in Guangxi Province participated in the mass slaughter of the rebel faction “422” organization, killing more than 110,000.
These cases point out that those major acts of violent killing during the Cultural Revolution were all under the direct instigation and instruction of CCP leaders who encouraged and utilized violence to persecute and kill citizens. Those killers directly involved in instructing and executing the killing were mostly from the military, police, armed militia, and key members of the Party and the Youth League.   
If during the Land Reform the CCP used peasants to overthrow landlords to obtain land, during the Industrial and Commercial Reform the CCP used the working class to overthrow capitalists to gain assets, and during the Anti-Rightist Movement the CCP eliminated all intellectuals who held opposing opinions, then what was the purpose of all the killing during the Cultural Revolution? The CCP used one group to kill another, and no one class was relied upon. Even if you were from the workers and peasants, two classes upon which the Party relied in the past, if your viewpoint differed from that of the Party, your life would be in danger. So in the end, what was it all for?
The purpose was to establish communism as the one and only religion dominating the entire country, controlling not just the state but every individual’s mind.
The Cultural Revolution pushed the CCP and Mao Zedong’s cult of personality to a climax. Mao’s theory had to be used to dictate everything and one person’s vision had to be embedded in tens of millions of people’s minds. The Cultural Revolution, in a way unprecedented and never again to be matched, intentionally did not specify what could not be done. Instead, the Party emphasized “what can be done and how to do it. Anything outside this boundary could not be done or even considered.”
During the Cultural Revolution, everyone in the country carried out a religious-like ritual: “ask the Party for instructions in the morning and report to the Party in the evening,” salute Chairman Mao several times a day, wishing him boundless longevity, and conduct morning and evening political prayers everyday. Nearly every literate person had the experience of writing self-criticism and thought reports. Mao’s quotations such as the following were frequently recited. “Fight ferociously against every passing thought of selfishness.” “Execute instructions whether or not you understood them; deepen your understanding in the process of execution.” 
Only one “god” (Mao) was allowed to be worshiped; only one kind of scripture (Mao’s teaching) was allowed to be studied. Soon the “god-making” process progressed to such a degree that people could not buy food in canteens if they did not recite a quotation or make a greeting to Mao. When shopping, riding the bus, or even making a phone call, one had to recite one of Mao’s quotations, even if it was totally irrelevant. In these rituals of worship, people were either fanatical or cynical, and in either case were already under the control of the communist evil specter. Producing lies, tolerating lies and relying on lies became Chinese people’s lifestyle.

录音可通过以下链接下载 Voice Recording can be downloaded from the following link:



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