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Community Outreach: Thursday Lecture WEI Bilingual Training Center: Daodejing (1-5) on February 18 2016





















Original Text is from:


and from:

www.daodejing.org (Chinese Text)

The Book of the Way (Dao De Jing) by Lao Zi

《道德经》作者: 老子


1. The Nameless Eternal Dao 道可道,非常道。名可名,非常名。無名天地之始﹔有名萬物之母。故常無,欲以觀其妙﹔常有,欲以觀其徼。此兩者同出而異名,同謂之玄。玄之又玄,眾妙之門。 Ways that can be spelled out. Cannot be the eternal way.5 Names that can be named Must change with time and place.6 “Emptiness” is what I call the origin of heaven and earth; “Existence” is what I call the mother of everything that had a birth.7 Appreciate Emptiness, that we may see nature of the Way’s versatility; Appreciate Existence, that we may see the extent of the Way’s possibilities. These two, Emptiness and Existence, came from the same source. Though they bear different names, they serve the same mystical cause. A mystery within a mystery, Such is the gateway to all versatility.8

第一章 
[原文] 
道可道也①,非恒道也②。名可名也③,非恒名也。无名④,万物之始也;有名⑤,万物之母也⑥。故恒无欲也⑦,以观其眇⑧;恒有欲也,以观其所徼⑨。两者同出,异名同谓⑩。玄之又玄⑾,众眇之门⑿。 
  
[译文] 
“道”如果可以用言语来表述,那它就是常“道”(“道”是可以用言语来表述的,它并非一般的“道”);“名”如果可以用文辞去命名,那它就是常“名”(“名”也是可以说明的,它并非普通的“名”)。“无”可以用来表述天地浑沌未开之际的状况;而“有”,则是宇宙万物产生之本原的命名。因此,要常从“无”中去观察领悟“道”的奥妙;要常从“有”中去观察体会“道”的端倪。无与有这两者,来源相同而名称相异,都可以称之为玄妙、深远。它不是一般的玄妙、深奥,而是玄妙又玄妙、深远又深远,是宇宙天地万物之奥妙的总门(从“有名”的奥妙到达无形的奥妙,“道”是洞悉一切奥妙变化的门径)。 
  
[注释] 
①第一个“道”是名词,指的是宇宙的本原和实质,引申为原理、原则、真理、规律等。第二个“道”是动词。指解说、表述的意思,犹言“说得出”。
②恒:一般的,普通的。
③第一个“名”是名词,指“道”的形态。第二个“名”是动词,说明的意思。
④无名:指无形。
⑤有名:指有形。
⑥母:母体,根源。
⑦恒:经常。 
⑧眇(miao):通妙,微妙的意思。
⑨徼(jiao):边际、边界。引申端倪的意思。
⑩谓:称谓。此为“指称”。
⑾玄:深黑色,玄妙深远的含义。
⑿门:之门,一切奥妙变化的总门径,此用来比喻宇宙万物的唯一原“道”的门径。 


2. Relativity and the Meaning of Existence 天下皆知美之為美,斯惡已﹔皆知善之為善,斯不善矣。有無相生,難易相成,長短相形,高下相傾,音聲相和,前后相隨。是以聖人處無為之事,行不言之教﹔萬物作焉而不辭,生而不有,為而不恃,功成而不居。夫唯不居,是以不去。 People under heaven see beauty in what they call “beauty.” That way they know of the “ugly.” Similarly people see good in what they call “good,” That way they know of the “bad.” Existence and Emptiness are concepts that make sense by comparison. Similarly, long lends meaning to short, and high to low. Harmony is produced when sounds combine in unison. Because the fore goes, so the back follows. Thus the Sage would not act as if he could act on his will. He teaches the unspoken teaching. No word is ever spoken, yet living things thrive. No ownership is claimed, though Nature begets all creation. Humility is maintained even as achievement is made9 No credit is claimed even as work is done. . Because no credit is claimed, so no credit is ever lost.10

第二章 
[原文] 
天下皆知美之为美,恶已①;皆知善,斯不善矣②。有无之相生也③,难易之相成也,长短之相刑也④,高下之相盈也⑤,音声之相和也⑥,先后之相随,恒也。是以圣人居无为之事⑦,行不言之教,万物作而弗始也⑧,为而弗志也⑨,成功而弗居也。夫唯弗居,是以弗去。 
  
[译文] 
天下人都知道美之所以为美,那是由于有丑陋的存在。都知道善之所以为善,那是因为有恶的存在。所以有和无互相转化,难和易互相形成,长和短互相显现,高和下互相充实,音与声互相谐和,前和后互相接随——这是永恒的。因此圣人用无为的观点对待世事,用不言的方式施行教化:听任万物自然兴起而不为其创始,有所施为,但不加自己的倾向,功成业就而不自居。正由于不居功,就无所谓失去。 

3. The Art of Government 不尚賢,使民不爭﹔不貴難得之貨,使民不為盜﹔不見可欲,使民心不亂。是以聖人之治,虛其心,實其腹﹔弱其志,強其骨。常使民無知無欲。使夫智者不敢為也,為無為,則無不治。 The wise ruler treats able men the same as he would treat others. In so doing he avoids strife. He plays down precious goods. In so doing he discourages the emergence of thieves. He makes an effort to stem the emergence of objects of desire. In so doing he ensures that his citizens’ minds Will not be thrown into disarray. Thus the Sage’s governance Satisfies the real needs of people, While emptying their minds of desires; Builds up the inner strengths (bones) of people While weakening their vain ambitions.11 He would preserve the natural simplicity of his citizens’minds and reduce their desires. In so doing the clever people will learn that their contrivance will not work. Because the Sage does nothing but following the law of nature Nothing will deviate from their natural and orderly places.

第三章 
[原文] 
不上贤①,使民不争;不贵难得之货②,使民不为盗③;不见可欲④,使民不乱。是以圣人之治也,虚其心⑤,实其腹,弱其志⑥,强其骨,恒使民无知、无欲也。使夫知不敢⑦、弗为而已⑧,则无不治矣⑨。 

[译文] 
不推崇有才德的人,导使老百姓不互相争夺;不珍爱难得的财物,导使老百姓不去偷窃;不显耀足以引起贪心的事物,导使民心不被迷乱。因此,圣人的治理原则是:排空百姓的心机,填饱百姓的肚腹,减弱百姓的竞争意图,增强百姓的筋骨体魄,经常使老百姓没有智巧,没有欲望。致使那些有才智的人也不敢妄为造事。圣人按照“无为”的原则去做,办事顺应自然,那么,天才就不会不太平了。 

[注释] 
①上贤:上,同“尚”,即崇尚,尊崇。贤:有德行、有才能的人。 
②贵:重视,珍贵。货:财物。 
③盗:窃取财物。 
④见(xian):通“现”,出现,显露。此是显示,炫耀的意思。 
⑤虚其心:虚,空虚。心:古人以为心主思维,此指思想,头脑。虚其心,使他们心里空虚,无思无欲。 
⑥弱其志:使他们减弱志气。削弱他们竞争的意图。 
⑦敢:进取。 
⑧弗为:同“无为”。 
⑨治:治理,此意是治理得天下太平。 

4. The Character and the Benefits of the Dao 道沖而用之或不盈。淵兮,似萬物之宗。挫其銳,解其紛,和其光,同其塵。湛兮,似或存。吾不知誰之子,象帝之先。 The Way (Dao) is like water that simmers slowly, Perpetually emitting its energy without boiling over. It is like a deep, deep pool in the mountains, Unfathomable yet could well harbor the origin of all life forms. It can blunt sharp angles, Resolve disputes, Soften light that otherwise dazzles, Re-establish concordance where there is discord. Unfathomable, who would know its existence? Today I know of no child of anyone Who resembles our ancient forefathers.12 (Who followed the Dao).

第四章 
[原文] 
道冲①,而用之有弗盈也②。渊呵③!似万物之宗④。锉其兑⑤,解其纷⑥,和其光⑦,同其尘⑧。湛呵⑨!似或存⑩。吾不知其谁之子,象帝之先⑾。 
  
[译文] 
大“道”空虚开形,但它的作用又是无穷无尽。深远啊!它好象万物的祖宗。消磨它的锋锐,消除它的纷扰,调和它的光辉,混同于尘垢。隐没不见啊,又好象实际存在。我不知道它是谁的后代,似乎是天帝的祖先。 

5. The Impartial Laws of Nature 天地不仁,以萬物為芻狗﹔聖人不仁,以百姓為芻狗。天地之間,其猶橐龠乎?虛而不屈,動而愈出。多言數窮,不如守中。 Heaven and earth are unkind. They treat everything like the straw dogs used in sacrifice. The Sages too are unkind. In their eyes everyone is no different from a straw dog.13 Within the bounds of Heaven and Earth, There is plenty of space, Much like there is space within a bellows. Hollow but unyielding is this space. The more you work on it, The more air comes out. Words are superfluous and soon reach their limits. It is far better to adhere to impartiality and the middle way

第五章 
[原文] 
天地不仁,以万物为刍狗①;圣人不仁,以百姓为刍狗。天地之间,其犹橐龠乎②?虚而不屈③,动而俞出④。多闻数穷⑤,不若守于中⑥。 

[译文] 
天地是无所谓仁慈的,它没有仁爱,对待万事万物就像对待刍狗一样,任凭万物自生自灭。圣人也是没有仁受的,也同样像刍狗那样对待百姓,任凭人们自作自息。天地之间,岂不像个风箱一样吗?它空虚而不枯竭,越鼓动风就越多,生生不息。政令繁多反而更加使人困惑,更行不通,不如保持虚静。 

[注释] 
①刍(chu)狗:用草扎成的狗。古代专用于祭祀之中,祭祀完毕,就把它扔掉或烧掉。比喻轻贱无用的东西。在本文中比喻:天地对万物,圣人对百姓都因不经意、不留心而任其自长自消,自生自灭。正如元代吴澄据说 :“刍狗,缚草为狗之形,祷雨所用也。既祷则弃之,无复有顾惜之意。天地无心于爱物,而任其自生自成;圣人无心于爱民,而任其自作自息,故以刍狗为喻。” 
②犹橐龠(tuoyue):犹,比喻词,“如同”、“好象”的意思。橐龠:古代冶炼时为炉火鼓风用的助燃器具——袋囊和送风管,是古代的风箱。 
③屈(gu):竭尽,穷尽。 
④俞:通愈,更加的意思。 
⑤多闻数穷:闻,见闻,知识。老子认为,见多识广,有了智慧,反而政令烦苛,破坏了天道。数:通“速”,是加快的意思。穷:困穷,穷尽到头,无路可行。 
⑥守中:中,通冲,指内心的虚静。守中:守住虚静。 


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