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Community Outreach: Thursday Lecture of WEI Bilingual Training Center on February 25 2016




















Teaching Materials are taken from this site:



6. Humility As the Basis of a Rich Life 谷神不死,是謂玄牝。玄牝之門,是謂天地根。綿綿若存,用之不勤。 The receptive, humble spirit (“the valley spirit”) lives on.14 It is known as the Mystical Female. The doorway of the Mystical Female is known as the root of heaven and earth15 From it, imperceptibly yet relentless, . Runs the energy

第六章 
[原文]
谷神不死①,是谓玄牝②。玄牝之门③,是谓天地之根。绵绵呵④!其若存⑤!用之不堇⑥。 

[译文]
生养天地万物的道(谷神)是永恒长存的,这叫做玄妙的母性。玄妙母体的生育之产门,这就是天地的根本。连绵不绝啊!它就是这样不断的永存,作用是无穷无尽的。 

[注释]
①谷神:过去据高亨说:谷神者,道之别名也。谷读为毂,《尔雅·释言》:“毂,生也。”《广雅·释诂》:“毂,养也。”谷神者,生养之神。
另据严复在《老子道德经评点》中的说法,“谷神”不是偏正结构,是联合结构。谷,形容“道”虚空博大,象山谷;神,形容“道”变化无穷,很神奇。
②玄牝(pin):玄,原义是深黑色,在《老子》书中是经常出现的重要概念。有深远、神秘、微妙难测的意思。牝:本义是是雌性的兽类动物,这里借喻具有无限造物能力的“道”。玄牝指玄妙的母性。这里指孕育和生养出天地万物的母体。
③门:指产门。这里用雌性生殖器的产门的具体义来比喻造化天地生育万物的根源。
④绵绵:连绵不绝的样子。
⑤若存:若,如此,这样。若存:据宋代苏辙解释,是实际存在却无法看到的意思。
⑥堇(jin):通勤。作“尽”讲。

7. Selflessness as a Way of Life 天長地久。天地所以能長且久者,以其不自生,故能長生。是以聖人后其身而身先,外其身而身存。不以其無私邪?故能成其私。 Heaven and earth last. It is so because they do not give birth to themselves16. Similarly the last thing in the Sage’s mind is to propagate his body. Paradoxically, that is why his body advances. The body to the Sage is like any external object. For this very reason his body perpetuates. Is it not true that because he is selfless, That he realizes his true self?17

第七章 
[原文]
天长,地久①。天地之所以能长且久者,以其不自生也②,故能长生。是以圣人后其身而身先③,外其身而身存④,非以其无私邪⑤?故能成其私。
 
[译文]
天长地久,天地所以能长久存在,是因为它们不为了自己的生存而自然地运行着,所以能够长久生存。因此,有道的圣人遇事谦退无争,反而能在众人之中领先;将自己置于度外,反而能保全自身生存。这不正是因为他无私吗?所以能成就他的自身。
 
[注释]
①天长地久;长、久:均指时间长久。
②以其不自生也:因为它不为自己生存。以,因为。
③身:自身,自己。以下三个“身”字同。先:居先,占据了前位。此是高居人上的意思。
④外其身:外,是方位名词作动词用,使动用法,这里是置之度外的意思。
⑤邪(ye):同“耶”,助词,表示疑问的语气。

8. Undiscriminating Benevolence 上善若水。水善利萬物而不爭,居眾人之所惡,故几于道。居善地,心善淵,與善仁,言善信,政善治,事善能,動善時。夫唯不爭,故無尤。 The superior good man is like water. Just as water enlivens all living creatures and never contests with them, dwelling in places disdained by others,18 So the superior good man is prepared to situate himself where nobody wants. In this way he is close to the Dao. Make where you live a good place, Make your mind a mind of depth, Give your benevolence indiscriminately to others, Speak the truth always, Govern well, Work well, To set in motion the good times,19 Such is the way to live without contesting with others. Such is the man free from complaints and anguish.

第八章 
[原文]
上善若水①。水善利万物而不争,处众人之所恶②,故几于道③。居,善地;心,善渊④;与,善仁⑤;言,善信;政,善治⑥;事,善能;动,善时⑦。夫唯不争,故无尤⑧。
[译文]
最善的人好像水一样。水善于滋润万物而不与万物相争,停留在众人都不喜欢的地方,所以最接近于“道”。最善的人,居处最善于选择地方,心胸善于保持沉静而深不可测,待人善于真诚、友爱和无私,说话善于格守信用,为政善于精简处理,能把国家治理好,处事能够善于发挥所长,行动善于把握时机。最善的人所作所为正因为有不争的美德,所以没有过失,也就没有怨咎。
 
[注释]
①上善若水:上,最的意思。上善即最善。这里老子以水的形象来说明"圣人"是道的体现者,因为圣人的言行有类于水,而水德是近于道的。
②处众人之所恶:即居处于众人所不愿去的地方。
③几于道:几,接近。即接近于道。
④渊:沉静、深沉。
⑤与,善仁:与,指与别人相交相接。善仁,指有修养之人。
⑥政,善治:为政善于治理国家,从而取得治绩。
⑦动,善时:行为动作善于把握有利的时机。
⑧尤:怨咎、过失、罪过。

9. Knowing When to Stop 持而盈之,不如其已。揣而銳之,不可長保。金玉滿堂,莫之能守。富貴而驕,自遺其咎。功遂身退,天下之道。 Holding a full load of what you desire in your hands Is not as wise as putting it down. Sharpening a knife edge to the extreme, And it may chip off in use. To have a house full of gold and jade, And you will only invite thieves. To succumb to conceit and arrogance upon getting wealth and status, In the end you will regret it. Retire once a task has been accomplished And you are in consonance with Heaven’s Way.20

第九章 
[原文]
持而盈之①,不如其已②;揣而锐之③,不可长保④。金玉满堂,莫之能守;富贵而骄,自遗其咎⑤。功成身退⑥,天之道也⑦。
[译文]
执持盈满,不如适时停止;显露锋芒,锐势难以保持长久。金玉满堂,无法守藏;如果富贵到了骄横的程度,那是自己留下了祸根。一件事情做的圆满了,就要含藏收敛,这是符合自然规律的道理。
 
[注释]
①持而盈之:持,手执、手棒。此句意为持执盈满,自满自骄。
②不如其已:已,止。不如适可而止。
③揣而锐之:把铁器磨得又尖又利。揣,捶击的意思。
④长保:不能长久保存。
⑤咎:过失、灾祸。
⑥功成身退:功成名就之后,不再身居其位,而应适时退下。"身退"并不是退隐山林,而是不居功贪位。
⑦天之道:指自然规律。

10. Mind Training 載營魄抱一,能無離乎?專氣致柔,能如嬰兒乎?修除玄覽,能無疵乎?愛民治國,能無智(為)乎?天門開闔,能無雌乎?明白四達,能無知乎?生之、畜之,生而不有,長而不宰。是為玄德。 Can you concentrate your mind and soul, and not lapse a minute? Can you keep your breath soft and smooth, just as an infant would? Can you cleanse the eye of your mind, and keep it free from a speck of dust? Can you love your citizens and govern your country, selflessly and according to the Dao? If you were asked to guard the Gate of Heaven, would you be totally impartial21 Can you understand the four dimensions of the universe ? 22 and be free from the biases from learning? , To give birth to life, and To nurture it, yet claiming no ownership; To act, yet without being arrogant, To bring up life, yet not determining its destiny: That is the Mystical Virtue.

第十章 
[原文]
载营魄抱一①,能无离乎?专气致柔②,能如婴儿乎③?涤除玄鉴④,能无疵乎?爱民治国,能无为乎⑤?天门开阖⑥,能为雌乎⑦?明白四达,能无知乎⑧?生之畜之⑨,生而不有,为而不恃,长而不宰,是谓玄德⑩。
[译文]
精神和形体合一,能不分离吗?聚结精气以致柔和温顺,能像婴儿的无欲状态吗?清除杂念而深入观察心
灵,能没有瑕疵吗?爱民治国能遵行自然无为的规律吗?感官与外界的对立变化相接触,能宁静吧?明白四达,能不用心机吗?让万事万物生长繁殖,产生万物、养育万物而不占为己有,作万物之长而不主宰他们,这就叫做“玄德”。
 
[注释]
①载营魄抱一:载,用作助语句,相当于夫;营魄,即魂魄;抱一,即合一。一,指道,抱一意为魂魄合而为一,二者合一即合于道。又解释为身体与精神合一。
②专气:专,结聚之意。专气即集气。
③能如婴儿乎:能像婴儿一样吗?
④涤除玄鉴:涤,扫除、清除。玄,奥妙深邃。鉴,镜子。玄鉴即指人心灵深处明澈如镜、深邃灵妙。
⑤爱民治国能无为乎:即无为而治。
⑥天门开阖:天门,有多种解释。一说指耳目口鼻等人的感官;一说指兴衰治乱之根源;一说是指自然之理;一说是指人的心神出入即意念和感官的配合等。此处依"感官说"。开阖,即动静、变化和运动。
⑦能为雌:雌,即宁静的意思。
⑧知:通智,指心智、心机。
⑨畜:养育、繁殖。
⑩玄德:玄秘而深邃的德性。





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